Orbitals

At the center of the Atom there is a small positively charged Nucleus. Around it are what is called Orbitals. In 1897, J.J. Thomson, with his plum pudding model, discovered the Electrons, negatively charged particles, and in doing so was the first to propose that there are particles 1000 times smaller than Atoms. In 1909 Ernest Rutherford discovered that all the positively charged particles were closely packed in the center, so that pretty much maxed out Thomson’s plum pudding model. After Rutherford’s discovery, a man named Hantaro Nagaoka used both ideas and came up with the Saturnian model, an idea that the center of the atom was positively charged and the Electrons orbited around it, like the rings around Saturn. No one paid much attention to him, but his theory is one of the closest to the modern idea, that the Electrons float around the positively charged Nucleus, but not in a regular place, (as in Nagaoka’s model) but being found anywhere around the Nucleus.

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