Sapphire is the birthstone of September. A royal, strong blue color, it is the sister of the Ruby, both being a variety of Corundum, one of the hardest minerals known, actually, any Corundum that is not red (Ruby) is a Sapphire; so Sapphire comes in orange, yellow, pink, and lots of other colors. But to keep it simple, let’s just call blue Sapphire plain Sapphire, and yellow Corundum Yellow Sapphire, E.T.C.
The center Sapphire is called a “Star Sapphire” the six pointed star is formed from flaws in the center of the stone, the star only being seen because it is cut as a “Cabochon”, a dome, so the light can be evenly “distributed” (though I don’t know how the Lapidaries (Gem cutters) know where the Star is). Sometimes this can be seen in a Ruby, but that is uncommon.
The ancient Persians believed that the earth stood on a giant Sapphire, the reflection of which you can see in the sky. Though I think, at sunset, you can look over the Emerald trees, and see the top half of a brightly shining yellow Topaz, “wrapped” around in a Citrine blaze, lined with a ribbon of Carneilian, with a short expanse of Ruby, then an Aquamarine framing that. The rest is an expanse of Sapphire, in the middle of which is a shimmering Moonstone, sending a pale light to the Earth below, on the opposite horizon is a black Opal studded with Diamond stars.
The Sapphire is quickly becoming one of my favorite Gemstones.